Alternative names: Origin: Turkey. Tuning: A3 A3, B3 B3, E4 E4, A4 A4, D5 D5, G5 G5 or Oud tunings. Strings/Courses: 12/6 Further notes: Played with a Mizrab (long thin plastic plectrum), like the Oud and Cumbus. Scale Length: 540-560mm
Alternative names: Origin: Chile, 2007. Invented by the luthier Eduardo Cornejo. Tuning: A A, E E, A A, C# C# C#, F# F# F# or C C, G G, C C, E E E, A A A. Strings/Courses: 12/5 Further notes: Steel strings. Scale Length:
Alternative names: Akkordolia in Germany & Austria, Taishogoto in Japan, Bulbul tarang in India, Benju in Pakistan and Kottafoshi in the Maldives. Origin: Germany, Austria, Japan, India and Pakistan around the start of the 20th century. Tuning: F2 , A2 , C3 , F3 for the Akkordiola. The others vary, but there will often be some drone strings and some melody strings. Strings/Courses: Wide variation. Further notes: This instrument is fretted by pressing typewriter-like keys, which are numbered. Sometimes on the Indian version, called the Bulbul Tarang, it has piano-like keys instead of typewriter ones. Steel strings. Scale Length: Varies. There is no accepted standard.
Alternative names: Ekonting, Bunchundo, Econtin, Konting. Origin: Throughout Central and Western Africa. According to local traditions, it originated in southern Senegal. Tuning: Two common tunings are D, G, F and C, F, E. Strings/Courses: 3/3, 4/4 or sometimes more. Further notes: Nylon strings, sometimes fishing wire. Probably the ancestor of the Banjo. Scale Length: Huge variation.
Alternative names: Imzad Origin: Niger, Mali and Algeria. Tuning: No standard. Strings/Courses: 1/1 Further notes: Horse hair string. Scale Length: No standard.
- See Lute
Alternative names: Origin: Cuba, 1924. Invented by the Cuban guitarist and tresero Compay Segundo as a hybrid between the two. Tuning: E3, A3, D4, G4 G4, B3, E4. Strings/Courses: 7/6 Further notes: Spanish for 'Harmonic'. Steel strings. Scale Length: 650mm (the same as a guitar) or slightly shorter like a Tres.
Alternative names: Origin: Invented by the guitar maker Johann Georg Stauffer in Vienna, Austria in 1823. Probably inspired by the Viola da gamba. Tuning: E2, A2, D3, G3, B3, E4. Strings/Courses: 6/6 Further notes: Now quite rare, although there are and have been many attempts to bring it back into popular use. Gut or steel strings. Scale Length: